bookbhook Handcrafted Book Summary of Brick by Brick

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                                          Brick by Brick

                          David Robertson with Bill Breen

       Random House Business

320 pages; Average reading time 4 hours 32 min

This bookbhook summary will take not more than 10 minutes

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How LEGO came about?

In the aftermath of the Great Depression, Ole Kirk Christiansen founded LEGO by combining two initial letters of the Danish words ‘leg godt’ (play well), in the small town of Billund in Denmark. The company’s motto ‘Only the best is good enough’ emerged when Godtfred, Ole Kirk’s son, told his father that he had used two coats of varnish instead of the regular three, while making wooden toy ducks. This angered Ole Kirk so much that he ordered his son to go back to the train station and repaint the wooden ducks. The lesson inspired Godtfred to immortalize his father’s values by carving the motto onto a wooden plaque and since then it has been the signpost of the company.

In 1950, the father-son duo mutated the ‘Self-locking Building Bricks’ into an ‘Automatic Binding Brick’. LEGO had now moved from wood to plastic but this change failed to provide solidity to the LEGO bricks. They persevered and it was not until 1958, when Godtfred came up with the stud-and-tube coupling model, which had tight tolerances, enabling the studs to retain connectivity through friction. LEGO bricks as we know it, were born. Over the years, LEGO has maintained a relentless focus on its values and its ability to innovate via experimentation. In doing so, LEGO has seen success and failure, learning some important lessons in innovation management, on the way.

Is there something like ‘too much innovation’?

In 1997, in an attempt to keep up with the license-driven US merchandise market, Peter Eio, Chief of LEGO (USA), decided to collaborate with Lucas Film Ltd and came up with the concept of LEGO Star Wars toys. The sceptical Billund executives however, felt that the venture would violate the core values set by Ole Kirk: ‘to never let war seem like child’s play.’ Eio persevered, and armed with a customer survey that asked parents if they would welcome the LEGO-Star Wars tie-up, succeeded in rolling out the now extremely popular Star Wars LEGO merchandise. LEGO realised that the world was moving fast from free-play building blocks to franchise driven innovation.

 

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Why book summaries?

In this tl;dr world, you are running short on time. There’s hardly any time to read for a few hours at a stretch. And yet we are in the knowledge economy, where knowing more is equal to more success at work. How can you, then, know more without reading more? book summaries are one way to grasp knowledge in nuggets. After all, you need to read it all quickly. So how long is too long to stop reading? Is tl;dr about the (l) (adjective) or about the ‘(dr) (verb). As per a recent report, the average attention span for humans seems to have dropped from 12 seconds in the year 2000, to 8 seconds in 2016. At 8 seconds, our attention span is less than that of a goldfish. In simple words, we cannot focus on a task beyond 8 seconds without getting distracted. And this drop in attention span was across all age groups and gender. The number one reason attributed to this societal trend is penetration of multiple devices-smartphones, laptops, tabs, smartwatches and the endless list.

In such a scenario, you need a nonfiction book summary that captures the essence of the book, without taking away the pleasure of reading.

Where can I find the best book summary app or book summaries website?

bookbhook.com curates nonfiction books for you and then converts them into handcrafted short book summaries. But why book summaries? Because in this age of distracted attention, a book summary helps you grasp the book abstract and essence of the book in just a few minutes. bookbhook handcrafted book summary is available via one of the best book summary (book summaries) app and book summaries website-bookbhook.com.

Like blinkist in Europe and getabstract in the U.S, bookbhook converts non-fiction books into handcrafted short summaries. The bookbhook service is designed for the tl;dr world- with bookbhook you do not need to read more to know more. Why should a Hindi medium educated young entrepreneur in Aligarh miss out on Peter Thiel’s Zero to One? bookbhook brings the Hindi book summary of Zero to One by Peter Thiel. Do not like reading at all, not even a 10 min summary? Hopefully a book summary video will get you to know more without reading more?

How is a book summary different from a book review?

A book summary is not a book review. Book summaries actually much more than a book review, they are about the abstract of the book. While there are global book summary websites and book summaries websites like blinkist and getabstract, bookbhook is India’s first book summary and books based micro-learning service. With bookbhook.com, you no longer need to look for pdf of books like Blink, Outliers, The Secret, Thinking Fast & Slow, Dream With Your Eyes Open. An example of book summary can be seen here http://bookbhook.com/bookbhook-handcrafted-book-summary-of-super-30/

Which is the best app for non-fiction book summaries in India?

You just need to fire up the best book summary app from India- bookbhook and read handcrafted book summaries of nonfiction books like The Lean Startup, Zero to One. If you do not have the time to read or tired looking for pdf of books, your search ends with the best book summary app at bookbhook. bookbhook offers you book summaries of thoughtfully curated books as well as audio book summary. Soe of these audio book summary are free for you to listen to.

bookbhook.com is a book summary website that has book summaries in English. bookbhook app for book summary has audio book summaries, summary in Hindi and English. For the best business book summery, history book summary, your search ends with bookbhook. bookbhook is available as android book summary app as well as iPhone book summary app. You can read some book summeries on desktop as well. The audio book summary are available on the best app for book summary, for select books.

Where can I read more nonfiction book summeries from India and the world?

You can read high quality nonfiction book summery on www.bookbhook.com or you can click here to download India’s favourite book summary app-bookbhook to read more than 100 non fiction book summaries

bookbhook Handcrafted Book Summary of On Balance

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book summary of On Balance by Leila Seth on-India’s-best-book-summary-app
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                    On Balance: An Autobiography

                                          Leila Seth

Penguin India

496 pages; Average reading time 7 hours 01 min

This bookbhook summary will take not more than 11 minutes

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This bookbhook summary is handcrafted by Gayathri Manikandan. Gayathri describes herself as an ex-software engineer, book lover, craft enthusiast and a proud citizen of ‘Imagi’nation.’

This handcrafted summary will help you know

  • More about India’s first female chief justice
  • How Leila Seth managed work and home
  • Challenges that working women face, even at higher levels

Some sentences have been quoted from the book. These are marked in green

My parents

Much to the delight of my parents, their longing for a daughter came true on the day of Diwali on 20 October 1930.  They already had two sons Raj Kumar (or Michi), Sushil Kumar (Sashi) and I was named Leila. It was the pre-independence times, and my father was in the Imperial Railway Service run by the government. My mother was from a westernised background, her father was a doctor and was remarried (after my grandmother’s death) to a young and educated woman.

My father, on the other hand, was from a more Indianized background brought up in a village in present day Uttar Pradesh (UP). His mother was a young widow with seven children and wasn’t educated. She pawned her only piece of jewellery to educate my father. He excelled in his studies and remained with Imperial Railway Service until he died in 1942.

East meets West

In the 1930s, the years of my childhood, the British Raj was ruling over India and western education by Christian missionaries was most sought after. Gandhi, Nehru and Bhagat Singh were well-known figures. However, my immediate family favoured English & English became the language I think and dream in. It was not until my college days, when Hindi was made compulsory in post-independent India that I took up Hindi in college (though I failed the exams).

As my father was employed in the Railways, we also had the opportunity to live in Punjab and Bengal apart from UP. The small railway towns and the railway colonies in bigger towns ranged from sprawling bungalows to tent houses.

Friends

My parents had an active social life and played tennis and threw dinner parties. After a car accident, when I was about four, my mother became apprehensive about cars and suffered acute headaches. Because of this, my father rented a house in Darjeeling where we all lived, visited by my father for six months in a year. I went to the Loreto Convent, which had children from different countries.

In Darjeeling, we became close with the Dutts family. Later when my father was seriously ill and died in Calcutta, and my mother had to be there to take care of him, I lived with the Dutts as I always did when father and mother went on trips. The Dutts were very kind in accommodating us in their home while my brothers were in boarding school in Darjeeling. They were careful about not letting us feel the weight of their generosity and had secretly paid for my brother’s education, which we were made to believe was a scholarship from the school.

Quest for a suitable boy

I was nineteen when I met Premo. He had come to visit a family friend on his return to India from England after doing a course in boot and shoe manufacture. A year later, I visited Delhi for an extended New Year holiday, and a meeting was arranged at Kanpur for Premo to see me. Though he liked me and found me unassuming and intelligent, I was hesitant. I was not bowled over at our first meeting.

With permission from my mom, Premo started writing to me, and the correspondence helped me know him better. He was orphaned at a young age and was raised by his uncle and aunt, who he thought were his parents until he was the age of eight. He left home in protest against getting him married to his widowed sister-in-law. He joined a Bata shop in Ambala as a shop-boy and was later recommended as an assistant in a Bata shop in Mussourie.

Like my father, Premo appeared to be honest, steady and sincere. However, we were nurtured differently. While Premo’s grandmother was of the opinion that anything to deal with leather and shoes were best left to low-caste people, my mother’s view was that it was no disgrace to be a shoemaker but only for a shoemaker to make bad shoes. We eventually got married on 13 March 1951, 13 months after we first met.

In the family way

After we had been married, we lived in Batanagar near Calcutta. Moreover, for a short while, I continued my job as a stenographer at the Assam Rail Link Project. I had chosen a second-hand car over a romantic honeymoon at Switzerland, but little did we realise that we had spent all our money in buying the car and we had no money to buy petrol! We had to borrow money from the car seller to fill petrol for our drive back to Bata Nagar. It was amidst this financial situation that I discovered, much to my shock, that I was pregnant. Ma told me that each child comes with his food and fate and that I should not worry unnecessarily. Thus came Vikram, into this world.

The accidental career

When Vikram was not yet two, Premo was given an opportunity to work in Bata Development Office in London. We were naturally very pleased but decided to leave Vikram behind until we settled down in the new place. I was mostly seasick throughout my journey and remained in bed. After a little less than two weeks of travelling, we arrived at England greeted by the grey overcast English sky that looked depressing. The cosy image in my head with pictures from Beautiful Garden and Homes were all shattered by our poky little hotel room that was gloomy, grey and bleak.

My house-hunting trips, after Premo left for work, ended in disappointments owing to rejections on racial grounds and homes with no baths or shower. We eventually settled down to a flat with the property owner living downstairs. After upsetting our property owner with ringing doorbell, loud laughter, Indian music and creaking steps, we decided to move out as were planning to bring Vikram.

When I arrived in London, I had decided to do a six-month Montessori diploma course hoping to start a nursery school when I returned to India. Later, I decided to apply for admission to the Bar because the attendance requirements were not too strict.

Clearing the Bar exams

Vikram arrived in London when he was three years old, was not too sure of us and took some time to bond. Soon, he felt at home, and we enrolled him in a school. A year and a half later, Vikram and Ma (who came unannounced on a cheap chartered flight ticket) returned to India due to tension over the Suez Canal. Therefore, when his little brother Shantum arrived, Vikram was not there. At that time, I had already passed Part I and the final Bar examinations were due in a few months.

 We soon hired a baby-minder and we left Shantum every morning at her place and brought him back in the evening. With all these preparations, I took my exams relaxed though not as well prepared, as I would have liked. The day the results were out, I could not believe myself that I had come first in the Bar examination. Moreover, with that Bar Final results, my dream of starting a nursery school ended.

Young woman, go and get married

Shortly after completing my law studies, we moved back to Batanagar near Kolkata, and I was busy setting up the home and Vikram had started school. Once that was sorted out, the next task in hand was to find me a senior who would take me in his chambers. Pupillage is an apprenticeship to a senior, enabling one to acquire a proper knowledge of the technique of the profession. Moreover, that meant following the senior around like a shadow.

After consulting a list of barristers who were willing to take pupil, I chose Mr. Sachin Chaudhari and thought I would call him for an appointment. However, his calls were filtered, and there was no way for me to reach him. After a month, I finally booked an appointment with him. When I met him and asked me to join his chambers, he said ‘Instead of joining the legal profession, young woman, go and get married’. I replied that I was already married, to which he asked me to have a baby. I said I had a baby, and he said I should have another one. I replied ‘Mr. Chaudhari, I already have two children’. Taken aback, he said, ‘Then come and join my chambers, you are a persistent young woman and will do well at the Bar’.

So, this woman who not only wore a sleeveless blouse but also drove a car joined the chambers and completed one year of pupillage, picking up Vikram on the way back home from my brother’s home where he went after School. Late evenings, my attention was with Shantum who had been looked after by his Ayah, with a lunchtime visit from Premo.

My law practice

Premo moved from Batanagar to Pune for work and so did I and started practising at the Pune High court. I was one of only two women in that court at that time, the other being Dharamshila Lal. She was unafraid, bold and forceful. In short, she was the sole female star. We lived in a beautiful old house that once belonged to the Maharaja of Chainpur (owing to my husband’s position in Bata Shoe factory). Moreover, I arrived at the court in a chauffeur-driven black Plymouth. People could not understand why I was roaming around in the dusty corridors and courtrooms spending time with uncouth clients. However, Dharamshila Lal put me in my place when I complained to her about the musty toilet with bats flying about.

In due course, I found my feet and appeared for many cases including a rape case and a case involving death sentence, that gave me moments of deep dejection. Another case was that of a train engine driver convicted of criminal negligence and sentenced to 2 years rigorous imprisonment. He was unaware of a tragedy that happened when the train passed through a low bridge smashing and severing passengers sitting on the rooftop of the train unknown to the driver. I won the appeal, and my ultimate recognition came when the driver, not having the means to show his appreciation in a material way, brought his entire family to meet me and insisted on touching my feet.

After having two wonderful boys, we longed for a girl and had Aradhana. Vikram and Shantum, by this time, were in boarding school. We had difficult times when there was a clash between my duties as a lawyer and a wife and even told Premo one day about quitting my work. He replied, ‘I know that your work is one of your hands and that the family is the other. How can I ask you to cut off one hand? No, no, you must work, and we will adjust.’

My turn: Delhi

Premo was transferred back to Calcutta from Pune. Though I was less enthusiastic about the move, it was a very important one for Premo. I, on the other hand, worked very hard but did not make too much headway. There were gender specific challenges. It was difficult for a solicitor to brief young female lawyers. My brother who was a senior executive at Andrew Yule & Co sought my opinion only informally as his company preferred briefing a male lawyer.

On the personal front, our stay in Calcutta strengthened our family bonds. My brothers were living in Calcutta, my mom came over for Sunday lunches, and we had a large circle of friends. We also found our gardener Sona, who stayed with us for thirty-five years. He lovingly tended garden after garden, as we moved homes. Our children learnt to love flowers, trees and enjoyed peaceful gardens.

In Calcutta, Premo too was reaching a sort of dead end with Bata. We decided to move out of Calcutta but the question was where we should go. It was essential for me to stabilise my practice in a single place and we zeroed in on Delhi, as both the Delhi High Court and the Supreme Court were there. Therefore, I moved first to test waters. Premo had to settle for a transfer as Factory Manager to Faridabad, which was a bit of a comedown for him.

First woman judge in the capital

In early 1978, I was recommended as a judge for the Delhi High Court. Until then, there had only been one-woman judge, Anna Chandy who served as a Judge in the Kerala High Court during the late 1950s. Since then there were no women judges, and this issue had been under discussion and became more prominent during 1975, which was declared the Women’s International year.

The only two women who qualified for being a judge at that time were Urmila Kapur and me. Nevertheless, fate and destiny made me the first woman judge of Delhi High court on 25 July 1978.

There were interesting incidents when I was sitting as a Judge with Justice T.P.S Chawla who insisted a lawyer to address the court correctly. Justice Denning in England had issued directions that a woman judge has to be addressed as ‘My Lady’. The lawyer, however, had no idea what to do and when explained what was expected out of him, he simply chose to turn his face towards Justice Chawla and answer as if he had asked the question.

On another occasion, I was disturbed by shuffling of feet and the soft murmur of many voices. When enquired, I came to know that the dozens of people staring at me were a group of farmers whom Prime Minister Charan Singh had invited to Delhi to see the sights. They had visited the zoo and then came to see the woman judge at the Delhi High Court!

Women’s economic empowerment

Since the beginning, I had refrained myself from appearing only for cases about women. I had, by choice, taken up civil and constitutional work. However, as a judge, I wrote judgements for cases that had a woman’s angle (whether Silver utensils and Gold ornaments were considered ‘Jewelry’), a dowry-death case, and a custody case and so on.

In the dowry-death case, I was appalled at the alacrity with which the man remarried while he was still on bail and the parent’s mindset to give away their daughter to such a man. The law can only help. It is for parents of young girls to change their mindset about marriage being the be-all and end-all of their life. The education and economic empowerment of a girl are necessary.

Once, when I had asked a good friend who rose to very high judicial position, if he will give a dowry to his daughter, he answered that he would as it was nearly impossible in his community to get his daughter married without a dowry but at the same time he would not take dowry for his son. Though it was not what I wanted to hear, it was one small step forward.

Meanwhile, on the personal front, my daughter Aradhana was over 25 and was making commendable progress with her career in films. However, I could not help my apprehensions and fear about her landing up with someone unsuitable or worse, no one at all. My eldest son Vikram had his Tibetan journey compiled and published as a book and was working on his novel, The Golden Gate. My other son, Shantum, on the other hand, pursuing his search for an alternate lifestyle and a path of peace.

First female Chief Justice of India

11 years after being a Judge, in 1988, I was elated to know about my recommendation to be elevated to the Supreme Court of India. However, by a twist of fate, Ms.Fathima Beevi was recommended in place of me and she went on to become the first woman to be a judge at the Supreme Court of India. On the other hand, I was the senior most judge in line to become the Chief Justice. In 1991, Ranganath Misra, the then Chief Justice of India, decided that I should be made the Chief Justice of the High court of Himachal Pradesh in Shimla.

Unlike male judges whose families would follow them to their places of transfer, mine would not be able to give up their assignments. However, I was going to be the first woman Chief Justice of a state in India, and I did not want to pass up. I accepted the move and had the new experience of the entire household revolving around me. In my earlier homes, everything revolved around the needs of the man of the house, and for the first time I felt like I am a person in my right. It was in Shimla, Vikram completed his revision of A Suitable Boy.

As my sixty-second birthday approached, and so did my retirement, my memories came rushing back to me and I indulged myself in memories of the past.

Retirement is not the end

After my retirement, we moved to our own house in Noida with its tiny garden, which is my great joy. We had decided to move to Noida, as we did not have the sort of money to buy a house in Delhi.

About six months after retirement, I started getting depressed about not being able to have a routine anymore, and I could find no sense of purpose. Therefore, I joined a nine-month course of study to do a diploma in environmental law at the World Wide Fund for Nature. When I completed it, I was invited to be a member of the Board of Trustees and later became its Vice President.

In 1997, when I was busy with my arbitration work, I was appointed a full-time member of the 15th Law Commission. The Law Commission’s work was to look at particular areas of law suggested by the Government or Supreme Court or taken up by ourselves and prepare a report to be submitted to the government regarding the reforms that need to be done.We prepared several reports covering a wide range of subjects.

I did face difficulties and challenges in my legal career, but there were brave women, both in India and in other countries, who inspired me with their courage and determination. I feel humbled when I think of such luminaries.

I remember my mother who would feel upset when she was left out of activities of her children, and I was determined that I should have a life of own, so that there is no expectation of reciprocation of attention from my children. This did not mean I did not give my children affection or time; it was just that it was not to the exclusion of everything else.

The balancing act

This balancing act has not been easy. However, I have realised that if you are sincere with your work and love your family, you can share your problems and difficulties with them and it is surprising to see the solutions that emerge through consensus. In addition, I felt it was less stressful doing two different kinds of work. You could switch between your work and household, the change itself becoming a form of relaxation. The fame, the privileges, the recognition are fleeting, and I bring myself down to earth with a remark Premo made to me when we were first married: ‘It is better to spend time making something of yourself than socialising’

Click here to download India’s favourite book summary app-bookbhook to read more than 100 non fiction book summaries

 

Buy this book from:
  Read this book summary on India’s favourite book summary app-bookbhook? Now buy the bookRead this book summary on India’s favourite book summary app-bookbhook? Now buy the book
[/column]
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Why book summaries?

In this tl;dr world, you are running short on time. There’s hardly any time to read for a few hours at a stretch. And yet we are in the knowledge economy, where knowing more is equal to more success at work. How can you, then, know more without reading more? book summaries are one way to grasp knowledge in nuggets. After all, you need to read it all quickly. So how long is too long to stop reading? Is tl;dr about the (l) (adjective) or about the ‘(dr) (verb). As per a recent report, the average attention span for humans seems to have dropped from 12 seconds in the year 2000, to 8 seconds in 2016. At 8 seconds, our attention span is less than that of a goldfish. In simple words, we cannot focus on a task beyond 8 seconds without getting distracted. And this drop in attention span was across all age groups and gender. The number one reason attributed to this societal trend is penetration of multiple devices-smartphones, laptops, tabs, smartwatches and the endless list.

In such a scenario, you need a nonfiction book summary that captures the essence of the book, without taking away the pleasure of reading.

Where can I find the best book summary app or book summaries website?

bookbhook.com curates nonfiction books for you and then converts them into handcrafted short book summaries. But why book summaries? Because in this age of distracted attention, a book summary helps you grasp the book abstract and essence of the book in just a few minutes. bookbhook handcrafted book summary is available via one of the best book summary (book summaries) app and book summaries website-bookbhook.com.

Like blinkist in Europe and getabstract in the U.S, bookbhook converts non-fiction books into handcrafted short summaries. The bookbhook service is designed for the tl;dr world- with bookbhook you do not need to read more to know more. Why should a Hindi medium educated young entrepreneur in Aligarh miss out on Peter Thiel’s Zero to One? bookbhook brings the Hindi book summary of Zero to One by Peter Thiel. Do not like reading at all, not even a 10 min summary? Hopefully a book summary video will get you to know more without reading more?

How is a book summary different from a book review?

A book summary is not a book review. Book summaries actually much more than a book review, they are about the abstract of the book. While there are global book summary websites and book summaries websites like blinkist and getabstract, bookbhook is India’s first book summary and books based micro-learning service. With bookbhook.com, you no longer need to look for pdf of books like Blink, Outliers, The Secret, Thinking Fast & Slow, Dream With Your Eyes Open. An example of book summary can be seen here http://bookbhook.com/bookbhook-handcrafted-book-summary-of-super-30/

Which is the best app for non-fiction book summaries in India?

You just need to fire up the best book summary app from India- bookbhook and read handcrafted book summaries of nonfiction books like The Lean Startup, Zero to One. If you do not have the time to read or tired looking for pdf of books, your search ends with the best book summary app at bookbhook. bookbhook offers you book summaries of thoughtfully curated books as well as audio book summary. Soe of these audio book summary are free for you to listen to.

bookbhook.com is a book summary website that has book summaries in English. bookbhook app for book summary has audio book summaries, summary in Hindi and English. For the best business book summery, history book summary, your search ends with bookbhook. bookbhook is available as android book summary app as well as iPhone book summary app. You can read some book summeries on desktop as well. The audio book summary are available on the best app for book summary, for select books.

Where can I read more nonfiction book summeries from India and the world?

You can read high quality nonfiction book summery on www.bookbhook.com or you can click here to download India’s favourite book summary app-bookbhook to read more than 100 non fiction book summaries

Handcrafted book summary of Blockchain Revolution

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Book summary of Blockchain Revolution by Tapscott
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                    Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin is Changing Money,Business & the World

                                       Don Tapscott & Alex Tapscott

Portfolio Penguin

368 pages; Average reading time 5 hours 12 min

This bookbhook summary will take not more than 9 minutes

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This bookbhook summary has been handcrafted by Shawna Guha. Shawna is a banker with one of India’s largest banks and believes reading helps in widening the horizon of hopes, and handcrafts book summaries for India’s favourite book summary app.

This handcrafted summary will help you learn

  • What are the seven principles of Blockchain technology?
  • What is Ethereum?
  • How will Blockchain affect business and governance in the future?
  • Can Blockchain help in inclusive growth and development?

When did Trust become protocol?

After the whirlpools of dot com, big data, social media, cloud computing and the like, it is now time for another massive technological wave that is imminent in the near future -the ‘Blockchain Technology’. This started as a brainchild of Satoshi Nakamoto, a pseudonymous person who ‘outlined a new protocol for a peer-to-peer electronic cash system using a cryptocurrency called Bitcoin’. In other words, the concept of cryptocurrency or digital currency, which is the key factor related to Blockchain technology, will erase the presence of any ‘trusted third party’ during the process of distributed computations thereby enabling the data integrity. The same will percolate into every single level of businesses, governments, privacy advocates, journalists and much more.

The digital currency will work like a ledger that will be visible to everyone as it will be present in a distributed network and hence, the processes will likely to become much more streamlined with higher speed, accuracy, optimised costs, and security. The Internet of Information will in a way get transformed into the Internet of Value or Money via the Ledger of Everything. Banking and financial services have already embraced Blockchain technology in the form of distributed ledger technology.

Where presently the virtual trust resides through the intermediaries like banks, governments, PayPal, Visa, Uber, Apple, and Google, Bitcoin may revolutionise this whole concept as the trust will rest on the very objects of the network. The Internet will rise in a brand new avatar where every individual will have a personal identity or the ‘black box of identity’. It will help to create a trusted peer-to-peer sharing economy, protect economic rights, and reconfigure the financial system ensuring speed and inclusion.

7 Blockchain principles

The Blockchain technology not only focuses on safeguarding the privacy of people but also ensures rights like the right to property and recognition of a person. Satoshi Nakamoto formulated seven design principles that have become the primary Blockchain principles:

  1. Networked Integrity: Trust and integrity go hand in hand and therefore, are equally intertwined in the Blockchain economy concept. This is important to protect the privacy interests of the commoners along with inculcating a sense of undiluted trust amongst them. The Proof of Work or PoW mechanism of Bitcoin ensures strengthening the trust and integrity along with other relevant mechanisms like proof of activity, proof of capacity and proof of storage. The overall socio-economic and political activities will be benefitted by the same
  2. Distributed Power: Gaining inspiration from the HashCash by cryptographer Adam Back, Satoshi Nakamoto devised a distributed power principle sans a single point-of-control. In fact, the Bitcoin protocol can be downloaded by anyone for free, and a copy of the same can also be retained. The society at large can participate owing to the effective peer-to-peer network.
  3. Value as Incentive: The participants or holders of the Blockchain tokens will receive the financial incentives for participating or adding value to a particular activity in any and every kind of field. The Internet of Things is an example of this.
  4. Security: Safety and security are the two most threatened aspects regarding digital platforms nowadays. The Bitcoin Blockchain is supposed to eradicate the same by imparting the necessary cryptography throughout the network without which one cannot proceed at any cost.
  5. Privacy: Every single individual’s right to privacy is taken care of by Satoshi’s Bitcoin The identity of a person remains as a pseudonym
  6. Rights Preserved: The preservation of rights in all forms is another major aspect of Bitcoin Blockchain in every sphere such as physical assets, intellectual property, personal BlackBox of identity and the like. There is an appropriate rights management system in-built in this new technology that arms the users with the adequate knowledge about their rights.
  7. Inclusion: The Bitcoin Blockchain technology works on the distributed capitalism concept that makes the economy work for everyone in the society. In other words, effective inclusion is the primary paradigm of this technology, which drives overall prosperity.

  Blockchain in financial services

The domain of global financial services is severely lagging behind owing to the age-old technologies that still prevail here whereas the world outside is dynamically digitalizing by leaps and bounds. The onset of Blockchain technology and the impact that it is going to have on the financial services sector will revolutionise financial services. The major factors that will transform are attestation or establishment of adequate trust while taking up financial transactions, cost optimisation, speed, value innovation and above all, the implementation of open-source technology.

The financial services sector starting from the banks and financial institutions to stock exchanges will undergo a massive metamorphosis altogether. Eminent global banks such as Barclays has already started exploring Blockchain technology to modify their financial operations. In fact, 2015 witnessed a historic event when world’s nine topmost banks – Barclays, JP Morgan, Credit Suisse, Goldman Sachs, State Street, UBS, Royal Bank of Scotland, BBVA and Commonwealth Bank of Australia joined hands towards establishing ‘common standards for Blockchain technology’ by bringing the concept of R3 Consortium.

Ethereum

The world saw a historic milestone being achieved with the onset of the Blockchain platform called Ethereum. Ethereum came about from the Brooklyn office of Consensus Systems (ConsenSys) which is ‘one of the first Ethereum software development companies’. Ethereum is the brainchild of the 19-year old Vitalik Butterin, a Canadian of Russian descent.

According to the website of ConsenSys, ‘Ethereum is a platform that runs decentralised applications, namely smart contracts, ‘exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference. Ethereum is like a Bitcoin in that it either motivates a network of peers to validate transactions, secure the network, and achieve consensus about what exists and what has occurred. However, unlike Bitcoin, it contains some powerful tools to help developers and others create software services ranging from decentralised games to stock exchanges.’

ConsenSys has eliminated the concept of hierarchy based working by replacing the same with a ‘hub’ nature of the environment. This facilitates even more seamless and smoother open communication with the help of Blockchain technology. This can, therefore, be taken up by the several firms in the future for more even distribution of power, increased transparency, enhanced user privacy as well as anonymity.

 Apart from all these advantages, the transaction costs are also going to be optimized by collaborative transformations of the three types of costs in an economy as specified by Nobel laureate Ronald Coase –’The costs of search (finding all the right information, people, resources to create something), coordination (getting all these people to work together efficiently) and contracting (negotiating the costs for labor and materials for every activity in production, keeping trade secrets, and policing and enforcing these agreements)’.

Distributed applications (DApps)

Blockchain will be revolutionising the way the businesses run today. While the basic operations of the businesses remain the same, the overall interface will be transforming with Blockchain. These Blockchain based business applications will be named distributed applications or DApps, which are nothing but ‘a set of smart contracts that stores data on a home-listings Blockchain’. The transactions through this Blockchain based interface will simplify even more and become seamless. It will be a peer-to-peer based network that will ensure much more privacy of data, reduction of risks, enhanced reputation, provision for identity verification and other smart features like insurance, payment settlement, and property access using Smart Locks (devices based on Internet of Things). After the evolution of the software applications from the client apps, server apps, virtual private network (VPN) and cloud computing, it is time for the distributed applications based on Blockchain to take over.

With the help of these, uploading of any program in the Blockchain platform followed by self-execution of the same backed by a tough crypto-economical guarantee will become easier, and this will not be residing inside any particular entity or organisation. Rather, it will be a public platform that will keep on performing in a secured manner. This will be made possible with the help of collaborative action of the Open Networked Enterprises (ONE), Distributed Autonomous Enterprises (DAE), Smart Contracts, and Autonomous Agents of the Blockchain technology.

In other words, the companies and organisation at large will have to take part in this transformation phase driven by Blockchain economy to survive amidst the change by value creation (through entrepreneurship) and value participation (through distributed ownership of the firm).

Blockchain & the internet of things

With the advent of Blockchain technology, the software and technologies related to the Internet of Things will be revolutionised as intelligence can be inculcated within the infrastructure with the help of smart devices so that these can communicate easily with each other through the peer-to-peer network of Blockchain. This will make the system more robust, cost-effective, and economical. The basic backbone underlying the configuration will be a mesh network unlike the conventional ‘top-down models of organisation, regulation, and control’.

Since the concept of a centralised organisation or entity is rooted out in the Blockchain technology, therefore, the system tends to become more secure with enhanced privacy. The power and distribution system will become much more streamlined as the digitisation of the power nodes will lead to the creation of a peer-to-peer structure that will ensure efficient energy consumption and storage in a particular neighbourhood.

It is speculated by several technology companies that Blockchain will help in tapping the potential of the Internet of Things technology to the maximum possible extent where every single node or device of business will act as an independent, self-sufficient ‘micro-business’ unit. This sphere will separately be known as the industrial Blockchain. In other words, the Internet of Things that require the Ledger of Everything for operating efficiently and effectively will be driven by Blockchain. This will in turn help in taking care of the nine facets of Ledger of Everything, namely: Resilient, Robust, Real-time, Responsive, Radically Open, Renewable, Reductive, Revenue-generating, and Reliable.

 In short, the actual objects of the real world are ‘animated’ and placed in the Ledger of Everything, which then comes alive and starts communicating and responding by taking appropriate action as well. Networked intelligence as specified in The Digital Economy will be the main keyword of Internet of Things thereby redefining businesses altogether.

Can Blockchain be inclusive?

The ultimate success of any form of technology lies in its ability to percolate to every single stratum of the society. It is only with the growth and development of all the levels of the society that overall economic prosperity can be attained. Consequently, the Blockchain technology too has got the immense potential that can be utilised in unveiling the unbanked strata of the society that comprises of the poor and destitute who are leading lives depending upon agriculture, livestock, fishing and other allied sectors. It is understood that all these are simply assets that ought to be utilised for gaining money by exchanging value, which can be possible with the help of Blockchain Bitcoin.

This technology can work with even tiniest of pennies, and therefore, even the meagre assets of the individuals can prove beneficial by enabling them to go for the hassle-free opening of bank account, followed by utilising all the necessary benefits of deposits and credit backed by Blockchain. In fact, availability of ‘a mobile phone and some Internet access’ is enough to start participating in prosperity build-up using Blockchain technology.

Apart from these tools of abundance, persistent identity and democratised entrepreneurship are the pivotal points related to prosperity through Blockchain. The domains of microfinance, asset ownership, payments, and settlements are going to be revolutionised with Blockchain that will, in turn, lead to a concept of distributed ownership and investment. Added to these factors, it will become easier to the government organisations, NGOs and other philanthropic entities to distribute funds to the needy section of the society for their betterment and well-being.

Blockchain & good governance

In Estonia, digital identity is central to governance and administration. This is possible using an electronic ID card with a chip carrying information on identity authentication as well as a digital signature and a personal identification number (PIN).Estonia has also digitised information on a seamless platform across sectors such as education, health care, transportation systems, social services, and overall administration. The blockchain is the basic building block for this type of scenario that ensures that the technology spreads uniformly across all sectors of the society thereby achieving inclusive growth and prosperity.

Blockchain steps into metamorphosise the present nature of ‘the state’ concept into a much wider and more inclusive concept by inculcating integrity, public power, the value of the votes, preservation of privacy and technology inclusion. There are two major areas where Blockchain will play a major role- ‘integrated government and the public sector use of the Internet of Things’. The common people will be empowered in such a manner with Blockchain that they will be able to serve themselves as well as other fellow beings around them. The infrastructure will be more secure, and hence, a stream of open and trusted data, public value creation, and utilisation of the smart social contracts in case of political reputations will be possible.

What about Intellectual Property?

Blockchain technology can also be utilised to make the most of the intellectual property and therefore, enrich the concept of culture largely. In other words, the artists are supposed to be sole gainers under the purview of Blockchain while they get to express freely and at the same time, are financially benefitted as well. Blockchain will provide the platform for achieving this fair value by creating the appropriate intellectual property aimed at the well-being of the artists at large. The complications of the music industry and other allied cultural domains are likely to be simplified with the help of smart contracts of Blockchain technology.

A fresh genre of music ecosystem will be developed with the help of Blockchain not only powered by the smart contracts but also backed with the concerned artist’s reputation, integrity, and transparency that will, in turn, allow for the seamless deal making, privacy, and security, respect of rights and fair exchange of value. The Blockchain will be coming with value templates, inclusive royalties, transparent ledgers, micro-metering, micro-monetizing, rich database, usage data analytics, digital rights management, auction/dynamic pricing mechanism, and reputation system. Other features are basic copyright registration, digital content management system and the new artists and repertoire that work jointly to facilitate freedom of speech, privacy and freedom of press driven by Blockchain.

It’s not all good news

Blockchain technology being another nascent concept is likewise facing some major challenges at present that either may become roadblocks towards its successful implantation or can be averted to make the most of Blockchain benefits. This is first because it is still a complex concept that is hardly comprehensible by the all and sundry. At the same time, it comes with some other cons such as it can reduce the need for workforce thereby cutting down jobs, its energy consumption is not sustainable, insufficient incentives compared to the distributed mass collaboration work, privacy issues, malicious use of Blockchain by anti-social elements. Overall, it’s a mammoth task to make Blockchain operational. However, if the pioneers of Blockchain can stay firm regarding professional promises, then a new era of technology is possible.

The road ahead

It is not the job of a single entity like a government or another private sector to lead the Blockchain led evolution. Rather, the primary players in the market throughout the world have to come together and join hands to make Blockchain happen. These players include the Blockchain industry pioneers, venture capitalists, banks and financial services, developers, academic people, governments, regulators, law enforcement bodies, NGOs, users, and women leaders of Blockchain who have a crucial role to play in the successful functioning of Blockchain. The world will be interconnected with several networks like knowledge networks, policy networks, advocacy networks, operational & delivery networks, networked institutions, watchdog networks, platforms, governance networks, global standard networks and Diasporas under the purview of Blockchain. Together, the countries worldwide have to unite for enforcing Blockchain to the ultimate extent in the society.chnologies and drugs when they are needed, but also understands how our mind controls our physiology by making us better.

 

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Where can I find the best book summary app or book summaries website?

bookbhook.com curates non fiction books for you and then converts them into handcrafted short book summaries. But why book summaries? Because in this age of distracted attention, a book summary helps you grasp the book abstract and essence of the book in just a few minutes. bookbhook handcrafted book summary is available via one of the best book summary (book summaries) app and website-bookbhook.com. Like blinkist in Europe and getabstract in the U.S., bookbhook converts non fiction books into handcrafted short summaries. The bookbhook service is designed for the tl;dr world- with bookbhook you do not need to read more to know more.  Why should a Hindi medium educated young entrepreneur in Aligarh miss out on Peter Thiel’s Zero to One? bookbhook brings the Hindi summary of the startup bible. Do not like reading at all, not even a 10 min summary? Hopefully a book summary video will get you to know more without reading more?

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Handcrafted book summary of Cure

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Book summary of Cure by Jo Marchant
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                    Cure: A Journey into the Science of Mind over Body

                                          Jo Marchant

Canongate Books

384 pages; Average reading time 4 hours 32 min

This bookbhook summary will take not more than 12 minutes

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This bookbhook summary has been handcrafted by Sanjana Aggarwal. Sanjana is an architecture student who is deeply interested in how design solutions can make the world a better place. Reading books helps her gain that knowledge and be better equipped to approach problems with a deep and meaningful perspective.

This handcrafted summary will help you learn

  • How mindfulness can help cure?
  • What is the nocebo effect?
  • Does having a purpose help cure diseases?
  • Can hypnotherapy actually help cure diseases?

You can read this book summary by subscribing to bookbhook subscription plans. For more details, visit https://bookbhook.com/subscription

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Why book summaries?

In this tl;dr world, you are running short on time. There”s hardly any time to read for a few hours at a stretch. And yet we are in the knowledge economy, where knowing more is equal to more success at work. How can you, then, know more without reading more? book summaries are one way to grasp knowledge in nuggets. After all, you need to read it all quickly.So how long is too long to stop reading? Is tl;dr about the (l) (adjective) or about the ‘(dr) (verb). As per a recent report, the average attention span for humans seems to have dropped from 12 seconds in the year 2000, to 8 seconds in 2016. At 8 seconds, our attention span is less than that of a goldfish. In simple words, we cannot focus on a task beyond 8 seconds without getting distracted. And this drop in attention span was across all age groups and gender. The number one reason attributed to this societal trend is penetration of multiple devices-smartphones,laptops,tabs.smart watches and the endless list.

Where can I find the best book summary app or book summaries website?

bookbhook.com curates non fiction books for you and then converts them into handcrafted short book summaries. But why book summaries? Because in this age of distracted attention, a book summary helps you grasp the book abstract and essence of the book in just a few minutes. bookbhook handcrafted book summary is available via one of the best book summary (book summaries) app and website-bookbhook.com. Like blinkist in Europe and getabstract in the U.S., bookbhook converts non fiction books into handcrafted short summaries. The bookbhook service is designed for the tl;dr world- with bookbhook you do not need to read more to know more.  Why should a Hindi medium educated young entrepreneur in Aligarh miss out on Peter Thiel’s Zero to One? bookbhook brings the Hindi summary of the startup bible. Do not like reading at all, not even a 10 min summary? Hopefully a book summary video will get you to know more without reading more?

How is a book summary different from a book review?

A book summary is not a book review. Book summaries actually much more than a book review, they are about the abstract of the book. While there are global book summary websites and book summaries websites like blinkist and getabstract, bookbhook is India’s first book summary and books based micro-learning service.With bookbhook.com, you no longer need to look for pdf of books like Blink, Outliers, The Secret, Thinking Fast & Slow, Dream With Your Eyes Open.

The best app for non fiction book summaries

You just need to fire up the best book summary app from India- bookbhook and read handcrafted book summaries of non fiction books like The Lean Startup, Zero to One. If you do not have the time to read or tired looking for pdf of books, your search ends with the best book summary app at bookbhook. bookbhook offers you book summaries of thoughtfully curated books as well as audio book summary. bookbhook.com is a website that has book summaries in English. bookbhook app for book summary has audio book summaries, summary in Hindi and English. For the best business book summary, history book summary, your search ends with bookbhook. bookbhook is available as android book summary app as well as iPhone book summary app. You can read some book summaries on desktop as well.  The audio book summary are available on the best app for book summary, for select books.

 

bookbhook Handcrafted Book Summary of The Secret

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                                                The Secret

                                                Rhonda Byrne

Simon & Schuster

198 pages; Average reading time 2 hours 48 min

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This bookbhook summary has been handcrafted by Shweta Siddha-Deshmukh, exclusively for India’s favourite book summary app-bookbhook. Shweta is a computer science engineer who is currently working as a manager at an NGO, learning entrepreneurship and building a better work-life balance. Shweta believes reading has made her broaden her thoughts and reading helps her connect more with herself.

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The Law of Attraction

The Law of Attraction is the most powerful law in the Universe and is the secret to life. The greatest teachers, poets, artists, thinkers and writers have talked about it. Different religions and civilisations have expressed it in their writings and stories. The law was first recorded in stone in 3000 BC. The Babylonian civilisation was the wealthiest as they had applied this law of the universe.

The law states that you will attract those things in life that you are predominantly thinking of. For e.g.-You will attract more wealth with the thoughts of wealth and abundance. Your thoughts give you a magnetic power to attract things in life.  They may be happy or sad; the law will attract more likewise thoughts and thoughts become things!

Your predominant thoughts generate a frequency that is transmitted to the world outside. You attract things likewise on the frequency that are broadcast back to you. If you want to change anything in your life, you need to change your thoughts! People mostly think about the things they do not want and do not have in life. The Law does not understand good or bad, it will give you the things you focus on, and they may be the things you want or do not want!

Choose your thoughts

All living things operate on this Law of Attraction, but human beings can choose their thoughts and have the power to create their own life! Positive thoughts are hundred times more powerful than negative thoughts. It takes many negative thoughts to get negativity in your life. Decide and think only good thoughts. Not all thoughts need come true instantly. Time allows you to think about what you want and make choices. You need to become aware of your thoughts and carefully choose the right ones. Meditation is the way to control your thoughts and calm your mind.

Observe your feelings

The effect of what we think becomes our feelings. You will have good and bad feelings, which will make you aware of what you are thinking. You cannot have good thoughts when you are feeling bad. Bad feelings will attract more bad things to you, and so you need to try to change your thoughts and feel better. The good emotions of excitement, joy, gratitude, and love will draw more good into your life. You create a future that is on track with your desires. The Law of Attraction works throughout the day, and everything you feel and think creates your future. Be aware that when you are feeling good, you are powerfully attracting more good things to you.

You get what you are feeling rather than what you are thinking. If you are starting your day with a good feeling, you are going to attract more people and situations to sustain that feeling. There are situations when things go wrong one after another because of one bad thought. This pattern will continue until you change your thoughts. The feeling of love is the highest frequency and one of the greatest life-transforming powers in the universe. When you feel and emit love, you are harnessing a power that will benefit you if you have thoughts of love, and harm you if you have harmful thoughts for others. You need to understand and master your thoughts and feelings to create your reality.

Your wish is my command

You create your life using the Law of Attraction. There are many stories to demonstrate this phenomenon. In the story of Aladdin and Genie, the Genie always says, ‘Your wish is my command!’ In real life, Aladdin is you who always ask for wishes and Genie is the Universe, which answers your commands.

The creative process involves three simple steps:

  1. Ask: Making a command to the Universe for what you want. You need to have clarity about what you have asked for. If you want to lose weight, you need to get a clear picture of the weight you want and how you will look like in your mind. Do not focus on ‘Losing ’
  2. Believe: You need to believe what you have asked for. It is about acting, speaking and thinking as if you have received it. In the case of weight loss, you must visualise and believe yourself getting into that perfect shape.
  3. Receive: You need to feel good about what you ask for and believe you have received it. You are on the frequency of receiving when you are feeling good. For example, you must feel good about your body, as you cannot attract the perfect weight by feeling bad about your body.

When the actions you take seem effortless, they become inspired actions, and you start attracting things like a magnet when you become clear about what you want. There is no time and size for the Universe, and it will manifest one dollar or millions of dollars in the same way.

To experience the Law of Attraction, start with something small like a cup of coffee or parking spaces. As you attract small things, you will expect bigger things and create your life in advance. Make it a habit of determining the things in your life in advance. Create your day in advance by thinking how you want it, and then you are creating your life intentionally.

Gratitude & visualisation

Your current life is the outcome of your past thoughts and actions. Make a list of things you are grateful for and feel good about. This will shift your focus from the things you are complaining about and your problems. Gratitude will bring more into your life. Start feeling grateful about what you already have. The negative thoughts and emotions will block good things coming to you. You cannot get more into your life by feeling ungrateful about what you already have. Start by writing down what you want. When you thank in advance, for what you want, you emit a powerful signal to the universe, which says that you already have what you want, as you are grateful for it.

Visualisation is a powerful process as it creates powerful feelings by focussing thoughts into pictures. The law of attraction will revert those pictures that you saw in your mind. Many great inventions happened because the inventor saw the picture in his mind of what he wanted. When visualising, focus on the results and put yourself in the feeling of having achieved it. It is the feeling that creates attraction , and not the thought or picture. If you wish to get a new car, put yourself in the place of being inside the car and feel good about it. If you stay in the feeling of ‘I wish I could get that car’, it is always in the future, not in the present. That feeling will begin to be an open doorway through which the power of the Universe will begin to express. Our job is not to figure out how. The how will show out of commitment and belief in the feeling. The Universe always knows the shortest, quickest, fastest, and most harmonious way between you and your dream. If you turn it over to the Universe, you will be surprised and dazzled by what is delivered to you. Create a vision board and place the pictures of all the things you want in life. See it every day and feel that you have those things now. As you receive and feel gratitude for receiving, you can remove old pictures and add new ones. This is a wonderful way to introduce children to the law of attraction.

How to attract money?

The use of the Law of Attraction works for money as well. However, to attract money you must focus on wealth. If you focus on not having enough money, you are creating circumstances of not having enough. You need to think and believe you have more than enough and focus on abundance rather than lack of money. Negative thoughts and emotions will block money from coming to you. When you need money, it is a powerful  feeling, and you will continue to attract the feeling of ‘needing money’.

The fastest way to get money is to BE and FEEL happy. Declare to the Universe how much money you want in how many days, and it should be believable by you. You need to change the thoughts that money will come only through the job.  Ask and believe that you are receiving and feel happy; the Universe will take care of how to bring it to you. The thoughts of debts and bills will attract more of it. Figure out the ways to focus on prosperity. Always say, ‘I can afford that. I can buy that’ about the things you want to buy or dream. As you continue doing this, the pictures of your life will change. Do not focus on the lack and scarcity of the things you do not have.

People are wealthy because they predominantly think of wealth. Wealth is a mindset. You need to feel good about money to attract more money. Giving is a powerful action to draw more money into your life. The wealthiest people give away vast amounts of money. When you give with a feeling of ‘I have plenty’, the law of attraction will give back more money in multiples. As you practice giving, you must get more to give.

How to love yourself, and others?

Your actions should not contradict your desires when you want something in your life. Your actions in life should reflect your expectations. To get more love in life, you need to treat yourself with love and respect. Only after this will the Law of Attraction get you more people who respect and love you in your life. You should not sacrifice yourself for others with the feeling, ‘There is not enough for everyone so that I will go without.’ These feelings will turn to resentment. There is abundance for everyone, and you should make feeling good your priority. When you do what makes you feel good, you are a joy to be around for everyone. All the good things including health, wealth, and love depend on this. You need to focus on all the wonderful things and the positivity inside you, and the Law of Attraction will show more great things about you. As you love yourself, you will automatically love others.

For any relationship to work, we need to focus on what we can appreciate about others rather than the other way round. If you are having a hard time in a relationship, write all the things that you appreciate about that person and think about all the reasons that you love the person. When you focus on acknowledging the strengths of the other person, that is what you will get more of, and all the problems will fade away. We at times expect others to create our happiness, but only one person is in charge of your joy, and that is you. Your parents, spouse, or children have no control over creating your happiness but only have the opportunity to share it. Love everything and everyone you can, and when you focus on things you love, love and joy will come back to you multiplied.

Healing with the mind

The human mind is the biggest factor in healing arts. When patients truly believe they will be cured, then they will certainly be cured because of their belief. Healing through the mind can work together with healing by medicines. Thousands of diseases and diagnosis are a result of just one thing-stress. Our body creates diseases to let us know that we have an imbalanced perspective.

Cathy Goodman was cured of breast cancer in about three months without any radiation or chemotherapy. She healed herself by watching funny movies and laughing all the time. She tried not to put any stress in her life, as it was detrimental to the healing process. The immune system is made to heal itself, and we all have a basic built-in program called self-healing.

Diseases cannot live in a body that is in a healthy emotional state. Diseases remain in the body by attention, thoughts, and observation of illness. Release thoughts of ageing and stop counting the number of your birthdays. Through constant thinking of perfection, you can bring into being your perfect state of health, body, weight, and eternal youth. If you are not well don’t talk about it unless you want more of it. Help the sick person by changing the conversation to good things and walk away by giving your powerful thoughts and feelings to see that person well. To get rid of the disease, get rid of negative thoughts and stress. All the incurable diseases can be cured. Morris Goodman is known as the Miracle man, and his recovery from paralysis demonstrates the unfathomable power and unlimited potential of the human mind.

Heal the world

The society is fighting against poverty, war, drugs, and terrorism. When we focus on the things we do not want, we add energy to it. The anti-war movement creates more war. Instead, try to be pro-peace. Mother Teresa said she will never attend an anti-war rally, but will always be there for a peace rally. When you talk more about things you do not want, you are creating more of it. You can give your powerful thoughts even to a world situation by emitting feelings of love and well-being, despite what is happening around you. The news channels broadcast more and more negative news because we are buying such news. It is just the Law of Attraction in action, and this will change when the society changes its focus. When you think good, feel good, and do good, you uplift your life and subsequently the world.

There is an abundance of goodness, joy, love, and power for everyone in this world. However, humanity limits itself by thoughts of fear, greed, stinginess and this becomes the experience. You see lack and limitation when you think there is not enough by looking at the outside pictures. Things come into existence when you think and feel about them from inside. There cannot be a lack as your ability to think is unlimited, and things you think into existence are unlimited. Life was meant to be lived to the fullest, and you must think, see, feel, and believe in abundance without thoughts of limitation. We can always find new resources that can help us achieve our goals.

Your goals are your responsibility

You cannot create other people’s life for them and force your opinions. Let others create the life they want. The universe offers everything to everyone through the Law of Attraction. And if you are facing a lack of anything, like poverty or a disease, it is because you cannot believe or understand your power. You must get hungry and intentional for the things you want, and Universe will deliver it all to you. Praise all the beautiful and wonderful things around you and do not spend your energy complaining about the things that are not working.  You get more when you embrace the things you want. You are on the highest frequency of love and have good feelings when you are praising and blessing everything around you. It will return to you manifold. Praising and blessing the enemies will dissolve all the negativity, but cursing them will harm you, as the curse will come back.

Focus on yourself

You are the most powerful transmission tower in the Universe. When you think about the things you want and emit that frequency, the things that you want also vibrate on the same frequency and come to your life. You have the power to focus your energy through your thoughts. Look around for the needs waiting to be filled, imagine, and think their fulfilment into being. Henry Ford was ridiculed by the people when he wanted to bring his vision of motor vehicle into the world. However, he knew The Secret and the law of the universe that other people did not know.

We are all connected and are part of the One Energy Field or the Creative Source. When you think negative thoughts you are separating yourself from this. The Universe is the supplier of everything, and you can think of Law of Attraction as the law of supply.

All your questions will be answered when you become aware of the power of The Secret and have a deeper understanding of the Law of Attraction. The universe has been answering you all your life, maybe in the form of a newspaper headline that attracts your attention or a song. Focus on the presence inside you.

You are limitless

Your life is what you create or what mission you give yourself, and no one will ever judge it. Start with a new beginning, be grateful to your past as it got you where you are and find your joy and live it! Do the things that you love, and that bring you joy. Once you find your joy and commit to it, the Law of Attraction will pour joyful things, people, circumstances, events and opportunities in your life because you are radiating joy. You have the freedom to choose for yourself.

This is the most exciting time in the history as we are going to experience all the impossible becoming possible. Once we know we are limitless, we can experience limitless magnificence of humankind expressed through sports, health, art, and any field of creation. The more you use The Secret, the more you will understand it. The Secret is within you. Every beautiful thing you see and every wondrous thing you experience is all there for you. You are the master of the Universe and the perfection of Life.

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Why should you stop looking for free pdf of The Secret by Rhonda Byrne?

A lot of us are turning into reluctant readers due to our busy lives. How long will it take for you to read The Secret by Rhonda Byrne? Not less than a couple of days unless you read more than three hours a day. bookbhook is an attention economy service that saves you time by thoughtfully curating books for you and then handcrafting book summaries with lots of love, so that you do not spend looking for free pdf of The Secret by Rhonda Byrne.

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Handcrafted book summary of Remote: Office Not Required

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Book Summary of Remote: Office Not Required
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                           Remote: Office Not Required

                        David Hansson & Jason Fried

Random House (UK)

256 pages; Average reading time 3 hours 37 min

This bookbhook summary will take not more than 12 minutes

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This bookbhook summary has been handcrafted by Sumit Agrawal. Sumit is techno-functional business specialist, equity market trader, and articulate orator. He reads to explore new ideas and become proficient in the art of explanation.

This handcrafted summary will help you learn

  • Practical tips on how to make remote working effective?
  • What are the pitfalls in remote working, and how to prevent them?
  • How to become an expert in remote work?
  • Overview of tools and techniques that will help you get most out of remote working

You can read this book summary by subscribing to bookbhook subscription plans. For more details, visit https://bookbhook.com/subscription

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Handcrafted book summary of The Millennials

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            The Millennials: Exploring the World of the Largest Living Generation

                                 Subramanian S Kalpathi

256 pages; Average reading time 3 hours 37 min

This bookbhook summary will take not more than 10 minutes

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This bookbhook summary has been handcrafted by Shawna Guha. Apart from handcrafting book summaries for India’s favourite book summary app, Shawna is a banker with one of India’s largest banks and believes reading helps in widening the horizon of hopes.

Who is the Millennial?

Today’s youth, commonly known as Generation Y or ‘The Millennials’, Generation Me, Generation We, or  Global Generation form a significant part of the global working population. In fact, amongst the five generations, the Greatest Generation (born after 1928), the Silent Generation (born between 1928 and 1945), the Baby Boom Generation (born between 1946 and 1964), Generation X (born between 1965 and 1980) and finally the present day Millennial Generation (born after 1980), the Gen Xers, baby boomers and the millennials are the major ones at work today.

The Millennials are the most active ones in these groups, and they tend to influence as well as being influenced by the workplace they are working in. This is due to their exceptional behavioural characteristics, work environment, managerial relationships, dynamism and ability to adapt to radical changes in technology around that have set them apart from the rest of the generations.

 

You can read this book summary by subscribing to bookbhook subscription plans. For more details, visit https://bookbhook.com/subscription

 

 

Why book summaries?

In this tl;dr world, you are running short on time. There”s hardly any time to read for a few hours at a stretch. And yet we are in the knowledge economy, where knowing more is equal to more success at work. How can you, then, know more without reading more? book summaries are one way to grasp knowledge in nuggets. After all, you need to read it all quickly.So how long is too long to stop reading? Is tl;dr about the (l) (adjective) or about the ‘(dr) (verb). As per a recent report, the average attention span for humans seems to have dropped from 12 seconds in the year 2000, to 8 seconds in 2016. At 8 seconds, our attention span is less than that of a goldfish. In simple words, we cannot focus on a task beyond 8 seconds without getting distracted. And this drop in attention span was across all age groups and gender. The number one reason attributed to this societal trend is penetration of multiple devices-smartphones,laptops,tabs.smart watches and the endless list.

Where can I find the best book summary app or book summaries website?

bookbhook.com curates non fiction books for you and then converts them into handcrafted short book summaries. But why book summaries? Because in this age of distracted attention, a book summary helps you grasp the book abstract and essence of the book in just a few minutes. bookbhook handcrafted book summary is available via one of the best book summary (book summaries) app and website-bookbhook.com. Like blinkist in Europe and getabstract in the U.S., bookbhook converts non fiction books into handcrafted short summaries. The bookbhook service is designed for the tl;dr world- with bookbhook you do not need to read more to know more. Why should a Hindi medium educated young entrepreneur in Aligarh miss out on Peter Thiel’s Zero to One? bookbhook brings the Hindi summary of the startup bible. Do not like reading at all, not even a 10 min summary? Hopefully a book summary video will get you to know more without reading more?

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A book summary is not a book review. Book summaries actually much more than a book review, they are about the abstract of the book. While there are global book summary websites and book summaries websites like blinkist and getabstract, bookbhook is India’s first book summary and books based micro-learning service.With bookbhook.com, you no longer need to look for pdf of books like Blink, Outliers, The Secret, Thinking Fast & Slow, Dream With Your Eyes Open.

Which is the best app for non fiction book summaries

You just need to fire up the best book summary app from India- bookbhook and read handcrafted book summaries of non fiction books like The Lean Startup, Zero to One. If you do not have the time to read or tired looking for pdf of books, your search ends with the best book summary app at bookbhook. bookbhook offers you book summaries of thoughtfully curated books as well as audio book summary. bookbhook.com is a website that has book summaries in English. bookbhook app for book summary has audio book summaries, summary in Hindi and English. For the best business book summary, history book summary, your search ends with bookbhook. bookbhook is available as android book summary app as well as iPhone book summary app. You can read some book summaries on desktop as well. The audio book summary are available on the best app for book summary, for select books.

Handcrafted book summary of ISRO: A Personal History

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                           ISRO: A Personal History

                        R Aravamudan & Gita Aravamudan

Harper Collins

256 pages; Average reading time 3 hours 37 min

This bookbhook summary will take not more than 10 minutes

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This bookbhook summary has been handcrafted by Sudeshna Bhattacharya. Sudeshna holds a post graduate degree in economics and decided to opt out of a high flying corporate career to spend more time with her own self. Reading books helps Sudeshna in her self-discovery and that’s how she decided to handcraft book summaries for India’s favourite book summary app.

ISRO has indeed come a long way from experimental launching of sounding rockets to setting a world record by launching 104 satellites into orbit on a single mission. A team of young engineers ably supported the space program of India as envisioned by Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. R. Aravamudan was one of the handful of engineers who helped set up the foundation of what is today one of the most cost effective and efficient players in space science. This book is an enthralling tale of how ISRO germinated from a vision and made its way into creating history.

Job hopping & lure of NASA

I began my career in the reactor control division of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) in Trombay, where I had relocated from my birthplace Madras. The initial excitement of my first job soon wore off and by 1962, two years into my job, I was looking for options. One day, my colleague informed me that Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, a scientist at the Physical Research Laboratory, was recruiting young engineers for setting up a rocket launching pad in India. These recruits would be sent to NASA for initial training and would then be posted somewhere in South India. NASA and south India were alluring enough for me to volunteer.

While still on the payroll of DAE, I was selected by Dr. Sarabhai, after an informal discussion with him. I was sent to NASA to be trained in building telemetry ground station mounted inside a trailer. Being the first in my family to travel abroad, the excitement of the entire family was palpable.

I was joined by three other engineers at NASA and all of us were under the guidance of Ed Bissell. We worked at the Beltsville unit, which was small, and our work was more of a technical operator nature. Although there was no technology transfer, we enthusiastically participated and volunteered in launching operations. The enthusiasm enabled us learn lot of techniques on our own.

In mid-1963, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam and few other engineers joined us in NASA. They were being trained in rocket assembling, launching and explosive safety.  By December 1963, the entire team returned to India to set up base station in Thumba near Trivandrum, Kerala.

Middle of nowhere- also called Thumba

Despite being a Madras resident and studying in IIT Madras, I had never visited Kerala. Thumba was chosen as the base station because its geographical location, being beneath the magnetic equator, would facilitate study of upper atmospheric wind properties. We were just in time for two consecutive launches of Nike-Apache sounding rockets. Despite appalling telephone connectivity, scanty resources and no facilities of canteen and offices, we were successful in these sodium vapor release launches.

Amidst these launches, we received our Doppler Velocity and Positioning System (DOVAP) – a 40 feet long trailer housing a ground station from NASA. Logistics was a critical issue in mid-1964, Thumba having no connectivity with rest of the country. I sought my father’s help in Chennai and managed to arrange for the transportation of the DOVAP successfully.

Our launch pad was set up on a land patch that belonged to a church. We worked inside the church and the bishop’s home. Scientists from US, France, Russia visited us and used our facility to launch sounding rockets. While there was no technology transfer with these countries, we were given various range equipment like telemetry receivers, tracking systems and computers. We even received a brand-new military helicopter from the (erstwhile) USSR.

Since I was responsible for telemetry equipment, I was also responsible to explain the equipment when high profile visitors came over to Thumba. I got a chance to meet Dr. Homi Bhabha, JRD Tata, Hideo Itokawa and political stalwarts like Indira Gandhi during my stay at Thumba.

The vision of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai

By mid 1960s, Dr. Sarabhai had roped in many scientists and engineers and looked forward to expand the launch station. The team was now a balanced mix of fresh out of college young minds and experienced Indian scientists from abroad. We zeroed in on Sriharikota, a remote island off the Andhra coastline, 100 km from Madras, to set up Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Traveling to Sriharikota and exploring the island, inhabited by handful of ethnic groups unaware of the world outside, was quite an adventure. The modest Sriharikota range got ready by 1971.

By the time we developed the expertise in launching sounding rockets like the Nike-Apache, NASA had sufficient success in solid launch vehicle called the Scout. Dr. Sarabhai and Dr. Homi Bhabha planned to build Scout type of rockets and requested for technology transfer from the US. However, since the rocket had military capabilities and potential, purchase of Scout rockets was prioritised over technology transfer.

Meanwhile the entire ISRO team focused on building an indigenous satellite from the scratch, to be launched from Indian soil. After several brainstorming sessions, we zeroed in on the SLV-3, which was an all-solid propellant four-stage rocket with a capacity of orbiting 30-40 kg satellite into 400 km circular orbit.

Benchmarking against excellence

In the early 1970s, Ramakrishna Rao, Y.J. Rao & I travelled to all the significant significant space stations across the world to gather experience that could be used for our indigenous satellite-launching program. We visited Germany, London, France and the Kourou facility in French Guinea. We were overwhelmed with the exhaustive R&D program undertaken by these facilities, with a flourishing budget.

Our visit to NASA was sufficiently enriching. Their professional expertise with huge hardware and cryogenic propulsion development got us floored. We had never seen such skillful exhibition of assembling of large rockets. NASA left a lasting impression with its avant-garde technology and state of the art communication equipment. Japan had a modest facility for space research quite similar to the one we had back in Sriharikota.

Gee whiz, we launched a rocket

Because there were stringent foreign exchange regulations in place in 1970s, we had to buy dismantled satellite telemetry and tracking station in an auction from Australia. We travelled almost across the world to get those dismantled parts at 10% of their original price and got them shipped back to Sriharikota to set up our first telemetry ground station.

With Russian collaboration, we launched M-100 rockets that were used to collect data for meteorological forecasts. They were systematically launched every Wednesday from Thumba and attracted big crowds of school and college going children, as well as others.

Meanwhile, NASA’s sending rockets carrying men to the moon was a delight for all space researchers across the world. The moon mission astronauts had carried back some rock samples from the moon, which were showcased around the world. These travelled all the way in a glass box to Trivandrum, where large crowds gathered to catch a glimpse of the rocks from the moon.

Rocket scientists also take a break!

Many of our colleagues, who came to the sleepy town of Thumba with families, did have initial adjustment issues given that they had left behind a vibrant city-life. Therefore, we built the Rocket Recreation Club with badminton court, table tennis table and a card playing room. We also hired a cook who would serve us various delicacies. Alcohol, however, was kept at bay.

In 1971, I got married to Gita, a journalist. She contributed in her own way to our space research by writing an article about ISRO in The Illustrated Weekly. The entire team was like a family and I was particularly close to Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, and so was Gita.

Under the stewardship and vision of the forever-energetic and charismatic Dr. Sarabhai, we were cherishing success intertwined with failures in our program. Dr. Sarabhai had a magnetic personality and a watertight schedule, and yet gave patient hearing to each one that he met. People from various walks of life often queued up to meet him owing to his amazing personality. We were literally shaken by his untimely demise on 29 December 1971. His death was like a passing away of the patriarch of the family. A loss deeply mourned by the entire nation.

Change of guard

The small team of engineers and administration working in Thumba was all set to spread wings and design indigenous space program with homegrown equipment and machineries. In the absence of Dr. Sarabhai, the mantle was passed to the much-experienced Caltech-trained aeronautical engineer, Professor Satish Dhawan. Prof Dhawan had a very different style of working and streamlined every department of ISRO.

The transition was inevitable and done in a professional manner, in line with business management style. This strategic shift in ISRO’s way of working was much required at a time when ISRO was growing in both size and scale. Prof Dhawan also asked the department heads of ISRO to start working from Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Trivandrum and Sriharikota. Various departments like the indigenous satellite team were shifted to Bangalore in order to get better infrastructure support from Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Bharat Electronics Limited. ISRO’s mission was now infused with greater accountability and clarity. 

Gate crashing into the elite club

The D-day for launching our first homegrown satellite was 10 August 1979. However, a glitch in the rocket caused the rocket and the satellite to nose dive into the Bay of Bengal amidst lot of despair and disappointment. In less than a year, the entire team picked up its lost morale to launch another homegrown satellite from Indian soil on July 18, 1980 into a 300 km by 900 km orbit. History was created when the spacecraft zoomed into the space majestically. The entire ISRO team was ecstatic.

India was now the sixth member of the elite club of space rocket launching nations. This was followed by both success and failure of the Augmented satellite vehicle (ASLV).

Rocker scientist or municipal chairperson?

In October 1981, I had to relocate to Sriharikota as the director of ISRO. It was not an easy journey to make from a place where I had spent 25 years of my life. It is difficult to imagine the Sriharikota of 1960s. Now, this island is home for close to 10,000 people with a central school, a hospital, basic shopping facilities and a large security establishment, apart from the ISRO facility. I was in charge of the entire establishment, which sometimes made me feel like a municipal chairperson.

Days were quite busy given the campaigns and daily programs. Our little island buzzing with activities was fast transforming into a major spaceport with world class illustrious facilities While in SHAR, we had to deal with the tragic news of the deaths of ex-Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and my long time senior colleague Brahm Prakash.

Crash, boom and then, whoosh!

After successful launches of homegrown satellites, we shifted our focus to build Augmented SLV (ASLV) flights. By the early 1980s, the management team at ISRO had seen quite a few changes, a key change being Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam moving out to the Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) and similar other postings.

Using closed loop guidance system along with new telemetry system and latest tracking facilities, we launched the first ASLV on March 24, 1987. It ended up in a disaster minutes within the launch and left a devastating impact on the entire team. The nation and media, however, stood by us during the tough times. After a thorough investigation by a committee set up under my supervision to identify the exact cause of failure, we decided to go ahead with the second launch on July 13, 1988. We did a course correction but to our utter dismay, this too was a failure, although the cause of failure was different.

Never before had we witnessed such experienced scientists plummeting into the depths of darkness and despair. We were accountable to the nation for the huge project cost and the second failure was not taken too kindly by the nation. After a rigorous and robust introspection, we undertook the launch of ASLV for the third time on May 20, 1992. We took all the remedial measures that were necessary from the accumulated data collected from previous failures. This time it was a huge success and boosted our confidence largely.

Overcoming roadblocks

Our success and subsequent confidence was rattled again with the failure of Polar SLV (PSLV) launch. It was worrying more so because this PSLV failure in 1993 involved a total project cost of Rs 415 crores. Subsequently, we carried out the second PSLV launch on October 15, 1994 and this time it was a ‘perfect textbook launch’. The jubilation of the team at ISRO knew no bound.

Our Geosynchronous launch vehicle (GSLV) was associated with development of cryogenic upper stage. Cryogenic upper stage involves nuclear technology. We tied up with Russian firm Glavkosmos for technology transfer. We were aware of the embargoes that could be imposed on India, as India was signatory of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The project ran into troubled waters when the USA pressurized Russia to call off the contract for technology transfer and built up several clauses to be applied in retrospect to stall ISRO’s GSLV program.

This embargo did delay our program for a few years but could not deter the moral strength of the ISRO scientists who launched GSAT-1 on April 18, 2001 successfully. The satellite INSAT-1 was put in orbit in a collaborative effort between Russia and India, despite the hurdles created due to the breaking up of the USSR in the 1990s. For the period 2003-2014, seven missions of GSLV were put into orbit in a series of successes for ISRO

Helping the Indian society

The ISRO founding team’s mentor, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai always believed that space technology could be made beneficial for the nation and her people.  He wanted to use space technology to take TV broadcast to the remotest areas of India.  For him, TV was a means to educate and spread awareness across the sections of Indian society. His vision shaped up into the ‘Krishi Darshan’ program on TV that informed farmers about agricultural knowledge.

Similarly, the then largest sociological experiment of the world was undertaken using Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) in 1975. This program organized development oriented programs for 200,000 people across 2400 villages in 6 states. Although Dr. Sarabhai did not live to see these successes, it was his vision that was put to using satellite communication technology enabled by ISRO.

Over the next few years, ISRO launched various communication satellites that helped India in terms of connectivity, disaster management, defense and emergency communications. Direct to home communication, that is very much in vogue, also uses very small aperture terminals VSAT, that were made possible by ISRO’s communication satellites.

Reversing the brain drain

I retired from ISRO in 1997. However, the umbilical cord with the centre is like a lifeline flowing in our veins. Many retired senior engineers have formed a part of Mission Readiness Review (MRR) team along with the aspiring scientists to help develop space technology and contribute to the national growth. MRR collaborates with the ISRO team in careful planning of budget, reviewing progress, designing layout, doing a quality assessment and taking care of recruitment. Transparency in the process of recruitment and promotion is handled with utmost care.

ISRO’s annual budget of just a few lakhs in 1963 has seen a staggering growth to reach a few thousand crores over the decades and the number of employees has swelled to 20,000. There was a sudden phase of brain drain in the late 1990s when India witnessed the Information Technology boom. Brilliant engineers and prospective science researchers shifted to IT industries that offered higher salary. The Government did take initiatives to revise the salary and provide lifelong benefits unmatched in the private sector that resulted in a reverse brain drain with our human resources finding their way back to the fascinating industry of space science.

The team at ISRO has a fair amount of job satisfaction owing to the stimulating work culture put in place by consistent effort of all of team members.

The sky is no longer the limit

ISRO has not limited itself to launching and operating national satellites, but gone beyond in launching international satellites through its commercial wing Antrix Corporation. By 2015, since its inception in 1963, ISRO has launched seventy-two complex satellites into orbit and created history. It is a commendable feat given that it was achieved with humble resources. The Chandrayan mission along with other cost effective and reliable rocket developed indigenously by India has garnered tremendous respect from all nations.

ISRO has given us more reasons than one to hold our head high. We remember the days when it was considered a commendable task to launch just one complex satellite in 2-3 years. Today, ISRO has achieved the feat of launching 31 polar satellites of 15 countries in space on a single mission. Moreover, the tremendous success was repeated again, within months, by launching 104 commercial satellites February 2017.

ISRO made its way into the elite club of space science through perseverance and technological acumen of its several dedicated scientists guided by the vision of Dr. Sarabhai.Today, ISRO stands tall with state of the art launch towers, excellent facilities and sharp thinking team of individuals with extreme dedication to serve the nation using space technology.

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Handcrafted book summary of Driven: The Virat Kohli Story

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                           Driven: the Virat Kohli story

                                         Vijay Lokapally

Bloomsbury India

216 pages; Average reading time 3 hours 36 min

This bookbhook summary will take not more than 9 minutes

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This bookbhook summary has been handcrafted by Nandini Shanbhag. Nandini quit her corporate job of 17 years to pursue her passion for reading and writing. Nandini believes reading opens the doors to unknown realms and widens our horizons and therefore decided to handcraft book summaries for India’s favourite book summary app.

The dream begins

West Delhi has produced a steady stream of cricketers for the Indian team with competition for a spot bringing out the best in youngsters from this not so privileged part of Delhi. The most notable player to have come from West Delhi was Sehwag who succeeded without any financial or institutional aid, through sheer grit and talent.

On 30 May 1998, ten-year-old Virat Kohli walked into Raj Kumar’s West Delhi Cricket Academy (WDCA) with his father Prem, to begin his cricketing journey. Over a few weeks, Raj Kumar noticed subtle things about Virat convincing him that Virat was destined for bigger things. The Delhi District Cricket Association had its own ways of functioning and things were not easy for young Virat. He missed the selection into an under-14 selection for reasons that went beyond cricket, but with sheer grit and performance made it to the Delhi under-15 team.

Building the foundation

Virat began his cricket journey in a 2002 Polly Umrigar Trophy match against Himachal Pradesh, scoring 15 runs. His first 50 came at Feroze Shah Kotla with a 70 against Haryana in the next Polly Umrigar match. While he had earlier lost out on being selected for the Under-14 team, Virat was now appointed captain of the Delhi under-15 team for the 2003-04 season. He took to captaincy smoothly and his maiden century came in the next match against Jammu and Kashmir. In the semi-final of the Under-15 championship, he scored 228 putting Delhi in the final against Mumbai. Delhi became Under-15 champions with Virat scoring a half century in first innings.

With Delhi having last won the Ranji Trophy in 1992, the selectors were keen to infuse new talent into the Delhi team. Virat Kohli made his first class debut in November 2006 against Tamilnadu. In the next match against Uttar Pradesh, Virat scored 42 runs, impressing with his footwork and fearless shots. Thereafter, in a match against the formidable Karnataka, Delhi was reduced to 103 for 5 in response to Karnataka’s 446, with Virat and Bisht at the crease with 40 and 28 respectively. That night, 19 December 2006, Virat’s father, Prem Kohli, passed away after suffering a cerebral attack. Virat’s life changed forever.

 What does it take to do this?

When Virat called coach Raj Kumar that fateful night to seek his advice, he advised him to ‘go and bat as your team needs you’, Virat too wanted to pay the ultimate tribute to his father by playing the next day. The next morning, Virat informed Delhi captain Mithun Manhas about his situation, who immediately asked him to go back home. However, Virat was adamant to play. His batting partner at the crease that morning, Bisht, said that a normally lively chatty character like Virat was expressionless as he went about his batting that day. Both of them batted well and he won many hearts that day.

Karnataka coach Venkatesh Prasad says that he found what Virat did that day to be fantastic and outstanding. Bisht made 156 and Virat missed his century by ten runs to a poor decision, and they failed to take a first innings lead. He broke down in the dressing room and left for the crematorium. That day Virat grew from a boy into a man

Named captain of the under-19 team for the World Cup at Kuala Lumpur, Virat had promised to lift the title before heading out. He requested his coach Raj Kumar to come and watch the final. To Raj Kumar’s delight, ably led by Virat, the Indian team won the Under-19 World Cup and Virat dedicated the win to his late father. In the 2008 Emerging Players Tournament in Australia, Virat stood at the ninth spot with an aggregate of 204 runs.

The wind beneath the wings

September 5th 2014, Teacher’s Day, became an unforgettable one for Raj Kumar as Virat’s brother Vikas stood at his door early in the morning. Raj Kumar knew that Virat was away shooting for a sponsor in the USA. Vikas stepped in, dialed a number and handed the phone to Raj Kumar. Virat said ‘Happy Teacher’s day Sir’ as Vikas thrust a key into his hands. At the gate, he found a new Skoda Rapid awaiting him. Raj Kumar was touched more by the gesture rather than the gift itself at Virat’s love and respect towards him.

Raj Kumar insists that Virat was born to play cricket and to lead. His biggest challenge was to keep his ward calm, as he was extremely restless. Though the flick was Virat’s favourite knock, Raj Kumar did not like Virat playing it, as there was always an element of risk involved. He asked Virat to play the shot to mid-on instead of middle stump and Virat worked hard to get it right. In addition, the cover drive was Virat’s strength and he loved playing it, but was advised to avoid it as he used to get out on that shot.

Virat credits his success to Raj Kumar, calling him the best coach ever saying that it is very important to have a mentor to whom you can talk and discuss things out. Befittingly, Raj Kumar was bestowed with the Dronacharya Award in 2016.

One Day, you will show your mettle.

Virat’s One Day International debut came on 18 August 2008 as an opener. Not used to this position, Virat could only manage 12 runs as India lost the match. His first century took 13 matches when he scored against Sri Lanka in 2009. The 2011 World Cup was important for India, as it had made an ignominious exit in the previous edition (2007). Virat’s World Cup debut in 2011 was sensational as he scored a century against Bangladesh, while on the other side, Sehwag scored 175.

In the semi-final against Pakistan, Virat scored just 9 runs, but India went on to the final. In the final against Sri Lanka, Gambhir made 97 and Dhoni 91 and this paved the way for an Indian victory. Virat carried his hero Tendulkar on his shoulders.

In the 2015 edition of the World Cup in Australia, Virat failed to strike form and India could not retain the World Cup.  He however returned to Australia with scores of 91, 59, 117, 106 and 8 establishing his credentials as a world-class batsman. Though India lost the series, Virat won many fans and admirers.

Are you ready for the Test?

Test cricket was fast losing its sheen and cricket administrators found it hard to attract crowds to the stadium. The question on selectors’ minds was Is Virat ready to play test cricket. Virat’s test debut happened thanks to Yashpal Sharma as he was convinced Virat had it in him to make it in tests and pushed through in the selection committee meeting saying that age was on Virat’s side, and even if he fails in test cricket, he will have time to come back.

Virat’s test debut happened in West Indies in 2011 with 15 runs and though India won the test, Virat had a lot to mull over. He failed to score in the second test and only managed scores of 27 and 30 in the next ones.

Playing in Australia has been seen as a benchmark for judging all round abilities of a batsman with the bounce and pace of its pitches proving to be unnerving. While Laxman was loved for his flair, Virat was admired for his aggressive style and batting together, they complemented each other. Laxman states that the biggest challenge faced by batsmen in Australia was to judge the length, giving batsmen little time to decide on whether to play or not.

Laxman and Virat followed the footsteps of Sunil Gavaskar in judging the new ball well. Virat’s composure and confidence coupled with a fearless attitude and impeccable timing added to his success in Australia. Virat’s knocks at Perth and Adelaide in 2012 proved he was in the big league of batsmen. In 2014, Virat kept amassing runs as Australians watched clueless. During this tour, when Dhoni decided to announce his retirement from test cricket, Virat took on the mantle of India’s test cricket captain and scored 146 and 46 in the Sydney test.

He dared to chase a target of 349 and then settled for a draw, announcing the change in the attitude with which India would play its tests henceforth.

Can failure be far behind?

Though Virat was earlier called brash, arrogant,undisciplined and aggressive, he had never shown disrespect to the game or his seniors. Nevertheless, his philosophy for playing the game was simply ‘You give me. I give it back’.

Sehwag states that he has not seen any batsman so hungry for runs and that is an attitude Virat imbibed from Sehwag himself. Virat’s rise in the stature did not stop his learning process and he firmly learnt his lesson of not giving his wicket away. His approach was to build an innings, but grab every opportunity that bowlers provided to dominate.

Virat failed in England in 2014 as he could not read the ball well. Virat’s temperament has been compared to that of Dravid. Dravid would shut himself off to his environment and negative thoughts while batting. Virat quickly put that England tour behind him. The tour also helped him become a more patient player who was willing to wait for the ball, and a lot more respectful towards his opponents.

 Passed the Test with flying colours

Test cricket is the ultimate challenge for most cricketers and it requires endurance and temperament to stick it out, especially in foreign conditions. Virat’s maiden test century came at Adelaide under extremely testing circumstances as Australia won the match.

Virat was constantly sledged by the Aussie players and taunted by the spectators, and recalls an incident with Ben Hilfenhaus when just one run short of his century. He gave it back to Ben. In Sydney there was another incident involving the spectators. Virat recalls that the spectators were drunk and abusive.

Facing the pace of South Africa in South Africa is a daunting task. In 2013, up against South Africa, Virat responded with a 119 at Johannesburg.  Against the scorching pace battery of Dale Steyn, Vernon Philander and Morne Morkel, Virat’s century stood out, making him the Man of the Match. On his first visit to New Zealand, he scored a hundred at Wellington. He was placed at 9th spot in ICC rankings post this series where he aggregated 214 runs in four innings.

Next Virat scored 115 and 141 at Adelaide batting as a stand-in captain for Dhoni with help from Sachin. He aggregated 256, the best by any player as captain. His 169 at Melbourne came even as Dhoni shockingly announced his farewell from Test cricket. That was how Virat became the captain in the final test and he excelled with a century.

Cricket or entertainment?

T20 was introduced in 2007 to inspire crowds with instant result oriented matches.  While there were those who rued the loss of purist cricket, fans lapped it up due to the high entertainment quotient. Administrators were happy as they laughed all the way to the bank and a new crop of players was born.

It was proposed to have a T20 World Cup and players like Sachin and Dravid opted out giving a chance to younger players to come in and claim their place. The huge fan following only increased when Dhoni and his team won the inaugural edition at Johannesburg.

Lalit Modi, came up with the brilliant idea of Indian Premier League (IPL) this time. IPL was meant to be a complete cricketing entertainment package and became an instant hit. Virat was part of the Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB) team and he learnt a lot playing alongside Ponting, Dravid and Kallis.

Virat’s first IPL season in 2008 was insignificant with 165 from 12 innings and 38 as his highest score as Rajasthan Royals (RR) won the inaugural edition. In the next edition held in South Africa in 2009, RCB lost in the finals and Virat’s aggregate stood at 246, something that he was not very proud of. IPL success continued to elude Virat.

The third edition saw RCB come third, but Virat bettered his aggregate to 307. In the next edition of IPL in 2011, Virat scored 557 runs to redeem himself.  In the 2016 IPL edition, Virat played commandingly, supported by AB De Villers, thus turning the fortunes of RCB around, but the crown eluded Virat’s team and they lost to Sunrisers Hyderabad in the final.

The new leader

Right from his Ranji days, Virat has been able to take his team along with him. His presence changed Delhi’s dressing room and others watched how he observed, learnt and experimented. He was highly competitive, but he never showed off his star status or rebuked any youngster in public. Virat has stayed focused on his fitness right from his early days. There was a time when Raj Kumar worried for his ward thinking that the fame and the distractions will lead him astray. Raj Kumar was even tipped by a senior player to reign in Virat so that he remained on course.

Virat leads India with a rare distinction of having a century in his first test as captain against Australia, Sri Lanka and West Indies. He is the true brand ambassador for the gentleman’s game in all formats.

Cricket has seen many leaders like Worrel, Richie Benaud, Imran Khan, Mike Brearley, Pataudi, Gavaskar, Kapil and Dhoni. Each of them had their own different styles and Virat has imbibed from them all. Virat has similar streaks of captaincy with the capability to inspire and motivate his team. He is a highly involved captain, always in the thick of the action.

Moreover, his policy as a captain is to not ask anything of his team members that he himself would not do. Virat never shies to shoulder responsibility or think for the team and wants to be known as a player’s captain. Under Virat’s astute leadership, Indian cricket is hopeful of scaling new heights.

You give me. I give it back.

Cricket has a rich history with legendary players like Bradman, Sobers, Gavaskar, Kapil, and many more making it the gentleman’s game that it is. Each one of them showed distinct characteristics like courage, dignity, stoic resistance, pure entertainment, magic of spin bowling and aggressive batting. Cricket though has changed dramatically from the days of Bradman to emerge as a fiercely demanding and highly commercial game.

There were many in the earlier generation who did not play for money, but for the love of the game. They were paid a pittance compared to what cricketers today make.

In present times, Virat has emerged as a youth icon and a role model. He plays to win and that’s what makes him a hero. His intentions on the field are very clear and he goes about his work meticulously. He does not believe in taking anything lying down as displayed by the 2012 middle finger wagged at the Australian crowds. He also had a run-in with Gambhir in an IPL match. Their coaches were appalled, but were sure that the players would soon bury the differences.

A role model for a new India

Virat fiercely stands up for what he thinks is right, standing up for his girlfriend Anushka Sharma when she was trolled by the social media when Virat failed at the crease. He put a very strong Instagram post in support of her, speaking plainly in shaming the people who trolled her saying that she had always motivated him and that people should respect her.

Off the field too, Virat bats for gender equality and safety of senior citizens. His two unfulfilled desires due to his cricketing commitments are to visit the Taj Mahal and the Vaishno Devi shrine. As a cricketer, Virat is tough to please, with a passion unrelenting and an insatiable appetite for runs.  He is a man of strong character constantly evolving his game and putting a high value on his wicket. His shots pack a punch and he is good at picking gaps.

Fully knowing his responsibility as a youth icon, Virat also interacts with his fans and promotes other sports like Kabaddi, football, hockey and futsal. From a young student of nine taking lessons from his coach Raj Kumar, he has now traversed the distance to where others take their lessons from him.

Virat played alongside Tendulkar in his farewell test at the Wankhede and gifted Sachin a thread that Virat wore on his wrist- it was a good luck charm that Virat’s father had given to him.

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                     Super 30: Anand Kumar Changing the World 30 Students at a Time

                                       Biju Mathew

Penguin Books

256 pages; Average reading time 3 hours 37 min

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Early Years

In 1973, Indian economy was crawling at the famous Hindu rate of growth. 54 per cent of the country’s population was living below the defined poverty line. The state of Bihar was in particularly bad shape, with 70 per cent of its population living below poverty line. Patna, the capital of Bihar, is where Rajendra Prasad lived with his family. Rajendra’s family comprised of his wife Jayanti, his brother and his wife and their parents. As a letter sorter with the Indian Railways Mail Service, Rajendra’s meagre salary just about enabled the family of six to live in the slum of Gaudiya Math, a suburb of Patna, and eke out a simple living. On 1st January, 1973, Rajendra and Jayanti, having lost a daughter earlier, were blessed with a boy, whom the grandparents named Anand- the Hindi word for Joy. Two years after Anand came Pranav.

Inquisitive as a kid, Anand would take things apart to understand how things work. Soon he started repairing broken radio sets on his own and in one instance, with a chemistry experiment gone wrong, caused a mini explosion in Chandpur Bela– the locality where Rajendra Prasad had built a house in 1988. Younger brother, Pranav, in the meanwhile, was following his own path of becoming a violin player.

College Years & Happy Numbers

By the time Anand Kumar was in grade 10, he was doing far better in maths, as compared to other subjects- a talent his teachers were clearly able to notice. Anand joined B.N College in Patna for his Junior College and chose maths as his specialisation subject. In college, he would reach out to his teachers with perspectives in maths that would normally not be expected from someone of his age. In 1991, conscious of the poor education facilities in Chandpur Bela, Anand decided to do something about it. On 10th August 1992, Anand attempted his first effort to improve the education resources in his locality- he opened a maths club with just two students. The two students did very well in their grade 12 exams, especially in maths. Word got around about Anand’s maths club and soon there were other students who were keen to join Ramanujan School of Mathematics- the name Anand gave to his maths club, in honour of his favourite mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan.

By 1993, Ramanujan School of Mathematics had forty students, only a fraction of whom paid a nominal fee to Anand. While helping students at Ramanujan School, Anand started nurturing the secret desire to study further at the University of Cambridge. He was already reading up journals in mathematics that he would pick at university libraries. Soon, Anand worked on a solution to a complex maths problem on his own, and showed it to the Head of Mathematics at Patna Science College. Professor D.P. Verma found the solution elegant and in order to bring some finesse to it, he asked Anand to send the solution to Kaushal Ajitabh-a senior of Anand’s, who was pursuing his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With Prof Verma and Kaushal’s help, Anand published an original paper titled Happy Numbers in the British Journal Mathematical Spectrum.

He then went on to publish a few more papers across prestigious journals, all this while pursuing his studies as well as running Ramanujan School of Mathematics from a poor suburb of Patna. With the encouragement of his well-wishers, Anand decided to apply at the Cambridge in April 1994.

 Cambridge and Selling papad

In a month’s time, Cambridge wrote back confirming acceptance of his application to study maths at the world renowned university. Amidst all the delight and happiness, the serious and difficult job of arranging funds to send Anand to Cambridge began. Rajendra Prasad was clear that his son had to go to Cambridge– whatever be the cost.

On 23rd August 1994, Rajendra Prasad developed laboured breathing and though Anand got his father to the hospital, delay is administering the right medication led to Rajendra Prasad’s death that night. In this period of bereavement, there was still the big challenge of arranging funds for Anand’s Cambridge stint. Anand met rich businessmen, political leaders (including the then Chief Minister of Bihar) but to no avail. Due to a loan taken by Rajendra Prasad, there was an outstanding amount on the family and no source of income, other than a meagre amount from Ramanujan School. The family’s priority shifted from arranging funds for Cambridge to managing the next meal for the day.

Anand’s brother Pranav, who was studying music at the Banaras Hindu University (BHU), also came back to support the family. His mother decided to make papads (a savoury food eaten with meals) which Anand would then go out and sell. Very soon, Anand was selling papads on his bicycle during the day, and studying maths in the night. Selling papads allowed the family to pay off its debt and barely keep hunger at bay. Both Cambridge and Ramanujan School were shelved. But while Cambridge was a shelved dream, Ramanujan School of Mathematics still kept Anand awake.

 Ramanujan School of Mathematics

Anand revived Ramanujan School in 1995 with six students. Despite the severe struggle with finances at home, Anand continued to charge a very nominal fee from the students, that too only from those who could afford to pay. Some of these students, while being coached by Anand for grade 12 public exam, were also keen to appear for the extremely competitive Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) for admission into the prestigious Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT). Coaching for JEE was an expensive proposition at private coaching institutes, something that was out of reach for the Ramanujan students. Anand decided to help his students prepare for IIT-JEE at a fraction of the cost. With the support of the editor of the Patna edition of The Times of India, Anand got the opportunity to write a weekly column on maths in the popular newspaper. This popular column helped Anand with enrolments at Ramanujan School, so much so that the school relocated into a bigger premise.

By 1997, Ramanujan School had 300 students and Anand started using a Public Address System to run his classes. Pranav, who was a budding violinist in Mumbai, also started helping Anand with the administrative aspects of running Ramanujan School of Mathematics. By 1998, the student population was 400, each paying Rs 500 ($7) annually- a small fraction of the exorbitant fees at the other coaching institutes. The other coaching institutes began a vilification campaign against Anand that soon degenerated into threats and violence. The landlord of the premises where Ramanujan School operated from, was forced to ask Anand to vacate the premises. Ramanujan School, now 500 students strong, shifted to a secluded part of the town.

By 2000, Anand was no longer worried about money, but he was worried about the quality of education being provided at Ramanujan School. He decided to limit the students to 500, come what may, so that he could extend personal attention to each of the students. He also decided to conduct an entrance qualifying exam for his school. In the first edition of this entrance exam, 7500 students appeared, of which 500 were selected. Anand seemed well settled into a life of a high calibre maths teacher in a small Indian town, doing what he loved and earning enough money to take care of his family. But then Abhishek Raj & Kishan Kumar came along.

  In Search of a Greater Purpose

In 2002, a boy-Abhishek Raj-came from a nearby village, with his mother, to meet Anand. His father was a potato farmer in the village, and earned only during the potato harvesting season. Abhishek, his mother said, stood first in all the exams in his village school. Abhishek was keen to study further at the Ramanujan School, but could not afford the Rs 1000 ($15) annual fees. This reminded Anand of Kishan Kumar who had met Anand earlier and told him he wanted to become an engineer, but had no money to pay the fees for studies. Anand asked for Kishan’s address in Patna and went to his ‘home’ to meet him. Kishan did not have a home-he worked as a security guard at a house- studied by the street lamp’s light, and slept in the open. Anand was heart wrenched. He thought of the days when he wanted to go to Cambridge and no support came his way. He thought of his father, Rajendra Prasad, and wondered if his father expected him to do more than just run the Ramanujan School. He was reminded of the time when his father had asked him to follow a greater purpose.

 Educate a Student, Elevate a Village

Anand decided to explore the path of greater purpose. He decided to begin a system of coaching very different from Ramanujan School. 30 underprivileged students would be chosen by Anand through a qualifying exam, who would not only study and prepare for IIT-JEE, but also eat, sleep and stay with Anand-at no cost. He asked his mother to cook for the 30 students and take care of their day to day living. Jayanti Devi was sceptical about the idea, but then Anand reminded her that the money they had now was because Rajendra Prasad ensured a good education for Anand and Pranav. These 30 kids are trapped in abject poverty and the only way for them to aim for a better life would be through good education. Enabling full boarding would allow bright students from far-off villages to study under Anand’s tutelage. ‘You educate one boy, you elevate an entire village’, said Anand. Jayanti Devi agreed but felt Anand was trying to be a Superman. 30 was the number because Anand felt that supporting full living expenses of more than 30 students would be beyond Anand’s means. Super 30 was born.

 Superman or Super 30?

In the spring of 2002, Super 30 began from Anand’s home. Suitable (and barebones) accommodation was identified for 30 students. Jayanti Devi geared up to cook two simple meals for 30 students every day, Pranav became the overall supervisor of the programme, and Anand the tutor. Super 30 expenses would be covered from Ramanujan School’s earnings, and a decision was taken that Super 30 will never seek or accept funds or donations. The first qualifying exam saw many under privileged students appearing to get a chance to enter the Super 30 programme. The first batch of Super 30 started preparing for IIT-JEE exactly one year before their actual JEE exam. One year of rigorous study, basic food and lodging, saw 18 of the 30 students clear the IIT-JEE and get confirmed engineering seats in the best engineering college in India- the Indian Institutes of Technology. The highest ranker among these 18 students was Abhishek Raj, the son of the potato farmer, whose mother did not have the money to pay for Ramanujan School fees.

This was a revolution beginning in the non-descript state of Bihar, built on the determination to not let another under-privileged child miss the chance to earn the best education that the country had to offer. The next year, 22 of the 30 made it to the IITs. In 2005, it was 26, then 28 in 2006 and 2007. In 2008, all 30 students from Super 30 made it to the IITs. This 100% record was repeated in 2009 and 2010. In the 13 years that Super 30 has been around, 333 out of the 390 students have joined the IITs, and the others have joined colleges of national repute.

 Formula for Super 30?

What is Anand’s formula for Super 30? Anand says that the core requirement to help underprivileged students succeed is to raise their confidence. Having lived a life of abject poverty and constraints, these students do not believe that they, too, can join institutions of global repute like the IITs. But once they are part of the Super 30 community, the power of group learning helps the students come out of their shells. These students are also aware that this is their one chance to change their destiny, with help from Anand Sir.

 Accolades

On 30th September, 2014, Anand was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-on an invite to address the teaching faculty and students. From missing an opportunity to study at Cambridge to selling papad on the streets of Patna to building Ramanujan School & Super 30, Anand had travelled a long way-guided all along by his father’s call to ‘find the greater purpose’. Global acknowledgement for Super 30 has been rich and adulatory. Japan has tracked Super 30 closely through documentaries. Discovery Channel did a feature on Super 30, and Barack Obama’s special envoy visited Anand in Patna in 2010. Super 30 has been covered extensively by both Indian and international media.

How Nidhi Jha Reached Paris from Varanasi

Nidhi Jha is from Varanasi, where her father is an auto-rickshaw driver. Once Nidhi cleared her grade 10 public exam, it gave her the confidence that further studies will help her build a better life. She attempted IIT-JEE on her own, but could not clear the exam. She then got to know about Super 30 and travelled to Patna and successfully cleared the entrance test for Super 30. Like the few other girls, Nidhi stayed with Anand’s family instead of the hostel. In her mind, her father driving an auto rickshaw to run the family became her motivating factor and for her Super 30 was her best opportunity to build a life very different from what she lived currently. Nidhi Jha made it to Indian School of Mining, Dhanbad. In 2015, a French director made a movie on Nidhi’s life, and Nidhi, along with her family and Anand Sir, got to travel to Paris to watch the premiere of the movie.

Shivangee’s Journey to IIT Roorkee

Shivangee Gupta is currently studying chemical engineering at IIT Roorkee. She was part of the 2013 batch of Super 30. Shivangee is from a village near Kanpur, where her father runs magazine and newspaper stall. She travelled to Patna for Super 30. She remembers her expense free one year stay at Anand’s home fondly. While she cleared the IIT-JEE entrance due to Super 30 programme, Shivangee’s family did not have the ability to fund her four years engineering study at IIT Roorkee.  Super 30 stepped in to help her with an education loan from a bank, by acting as her guarantor.

Chiranjeev’s Journey to Adobe Systems

Chiranjeev Kumar is a computer science engineer from IIT-BHU, Varanasi and currently work with Adobe Systems. Before he joined the Super 30 batch of 2010, Chiranjeev studied in his village school. His father is a farmer and his mother stitches clothes. Their means could offer Chiranjeev the village level school education only. Without Super 30, Chiranjeev may have still been in his village.

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